Soya Drinks and Beverages - Soy Yogurt - Soymilk Powder - Soya Dairy Foods

Soya Drinks and Beverages:  Soy Yogurt - Soymilk Powder - Soya Dairy Foods

 
 

SOYA DAIRY FOODS

Process Diagram Soy Beverages Yogurt Tofu Ice Cream Puddings Soymilk Powder New Products
Soya Milk  

Soya Beverages

There are two main types of soymilk drinks and general applications. The first is as a "plain" dairy alternative to cow milk, while the second is a range of flavored drinks. Each have somewhat different challenges in their processing.

Dairy alternative soymilk must be very "bland" tasting to avoid the beany flavor, which is objectionable to many non-Asian consumers. It must also have similar functionality to cow milk, in drinks and food preparation. Even mildly flavored drinks such as vanilla, require a very bland soymilk base. This challenge requires sophisticated processing and formulation to achieve the neutral taste while maintaining a good mouth-feel. A high proportion of dissolved soymilk solids is desirable. Otherwise, the product may be like a suspension, with particles settling and causing mouthfeel problems such as chalkiness. Vacuum deodorization is a must, as part of the processing line.

Soya dairy products  

In addition, numerous other technical considerations are involved in achieving the best yield, taste, mouthfeel and functionality. Fortification with additional minerals and vitamins is an important option. It is generally not cost-effective to try to produce totally plain soymilk drinks in smaller quantities.

Flavored soymilk drinks, particularly strong ones such as chocolate or some fruit flavors, are less of a challenge with the issue of the beany off flavor since they usually mask some of this. However, the base soymilk must still be relatively bland and highly functional. Vacuum deodorization may be optional depending on the final product and the quality of the main soymilk base production. This allows medium and smaller volume production with somewhat simpler processing equipment, however the flavoring formulas and mixing may be more complex.


Packaging of many types is used internationally. The most common is the higher-volume, long-life aseptic/UHT packages such as TetraPak. This is generally only cost-effective at higher production volumes in the 1,000 to 2,000 liter / hour minimum. However contract packing at an existing milk packaging facility may allow lower volumes to be handled. Newer milk carton packing is also allowing extended shelf life (refrigerated) for about two months. Bottles can also be used for extended, even non-refrigerated shelf-life, but not for as long as the aseptic UHT. Plastic bottles and pouches / bags are used also for various products.

   

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Soya Yogurt  

Soya Yogurt


Yogurt and its derivative foods and drinks are some of the easiest products to understand and produce for people with dairy food experience. The processing of soy yogurt is almost identical to that of cow milk, but with some very important differences.

Formulation is required, primarily to add a simple carbohydrate such as sugar, to compensate for the missing lactose found in cow milk. The bacterial culture, which can be the same types as for cow milk, as well as others, needs the additional carbohydrate to feed and develop. Another ingredient may be required to reduce the surface separation of water, which occurs somewhat more than with cow milk.


Flavored yogurt and drinks are easily formulated and processed for packing the same way that traditional yogurt products are packed. The flavored products when properly produced, are almost identical in taste to cow milk versions.

Inclubation time and temperature are also adjusted compared to traditional yogurt. Soy yogurt can require 6-10 hours or more of incubation at temperatures near 40 C.
This is also partly determined by the type of finished yogurt and the desired tart or neutral taste.

It is important to note that the soymilk base for making soy yogurt products, does not have to be absolutely bland tasting and that vacuum deodorization may not be necessary. This allows a less complex system and also one with a medium or lower production volume. Nevertheless, a good quality soymilk base is a must.

   

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Soya Tofu  

Tofu

The most well-known and common soya dairy food is tofu. In Asia it has been consumed for maybe 2,000 years, with its beginnings in China. During the last twenty years, it has become well-known and respected in much of the world, and mainly the developed western countries. Now it is also beginning to be known in many developing countries. It is similar to existing cow milk cheese products such as paneer in India and peynir in Turkey, and is processed almost the same way. It therefore provides an excellent soy protein alternative to many traditional foods.


Coagulation is performed almost immediately after the hot soymilk base is extracted from the processing line. The temperature at which the coagulant is introduced as well as the type of coagulant and type of pressing, all affect the consistency and firmness of the tofu. Calcium chloride is one good option for coagulation, since it introduces calcium to fortify the product. The type of coagulant can also affect the taste of the tofu. Other known coagulants are magnesium chloride, nigari (sea salt), citric acid and acetic acid (such as in common vinegar).

Pressing of the soymilk curds is done after the liquid whey water is drained away. The pressing can be manual, mechanical or hydraulic. After the pressing, the large blocks are cut and then cooled in a cold water bath.

Formulation is also possible with tofu. The addition of herbs and spices and other ingredients can make the product more ready to eat and easier to prepare at home.
The addition of other ingredients, before coagulation, requires careful testing since some ingredients will negatively affect the coagulation or pressing. Silken tofu, which is very soft and pudding-like, is made without removing the whey water or pressing.

Derivative foods such as patties, burgers, "cottage cheese" or quark, mayonnaise and other tofu-based foods are all highly viable but require careful formulation and processing.

Packaging for the basic tofu is generally in either a plastic container including a water bath and plastic film-sealed top, or in a vacuum-sealed plastic wrap. Some stores simply sell it in bulk from a vessel with a cold water bath.

Soymilk processing for tofu, as with yogurt, can be fairly basic and at almost any volume of production. Some of the beany off-flavor is gone with the drained whey water, and usually tofu is mixed with other spices and cooked cover any residual beany flavor. Therefore no vacuum deodorization is required in the soymilk line.

   

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Soya Ice Cream  

Soya Ice Cream

Like the yogurt category, soy-based ice cream is easy to produce for experienced dairy processors. When properly formulated and processed both hard and soft ice creams made from soymilk can equal the taste of most high-quality ice creams.

Ingredients will vary depending on the product, but basically the same types are used as for traditional ice cream. One major difference is the need for additional oil and emulsifiers to offset the lack of saturated fat in soymilk. The mouth-feel associated with most commercial ice cream is partly related to the fat content, and so soymilk ice cream will benefit from the inclusion of a vegetable oil. Different stabilizers may be chosen as well.

Equipment necessary for both hard and soft ice cream is identical to the cow milk versions. The difference is primarily in the ingredients and processing.


Soymilk processing for the best quality ice cream should include vacuum deodorization when producing mild flavors such as vanilla. With chocolate or other strong flavors, a less bland soymilk base can be used.

   

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Soya Pudding  

Soya Puddings


A wide variety of puddings and desserts is possible with soymilk as the base. Basically any similar product made from cow milk, can be made with soymilk. The question of beany flavor and its treatment is similar to the case of ice cream. The more bland the base milk, the more subtle the possible flavors. Pudding can also be made with tofu, particularly silken tofu, but it is not clear that this is more cost effective than making it directly from soymilk. A thicker concentration of soymilk would be required than for beverages. Vegetable oil and emulsifier addition to enhance mouth-feel, and other ingredients to alter consistency, are considerations in this process.

Packaging can be inexpensive, and like traditional refrigerated yogurt products. However, long life, non-refrigerated packaging is also available for this category.

     
Soyamilk Powder  

Soymilk Powder


The quality of the soymilk base is critical to the quality of the resultant spray-dried soymilk powder. Only very large volumes of production are feasible for spray-drying. However, other important technical considerations are also involved.

Evaporation / concentration of the soymilk prior to spray drying must be less than the usual cow milk since soymilk viscosity would otherwise be too much for the process.

Although the main part of the spray drying equipment for traditional milk powder is used, some equipment modification is necessary to be able to spray dry the soymilk.


Agglomeration or instantization is a further process which allows the finished powdered milk to be quickly reconstituted and dissolved in water.

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New Products

The variety of potential new products is limited only by the imagination of processors and the taste of consumers. In the west, new varieties of dairy-like soyfoods are introduced regularly and supermarkets are expanding their choices. Many traditional foods can be supplemented with various soyfoods to produce new consumer products.
The the proven health benefits, and growing consumer awareness of soya, support the production and marketing of many existing and new products.

Okara is the fiber rich by-product of the soymilk process. It is an ideal ingredient in baking and cooking, and value-added food processing. It is essentially available at no extra cost to the processor, and is otherwise a waste product or animal feed. The principal challenge is in drying it, for storage or shipment, which can be expensive from an energy consumption point. If it can be used in its wet stage, and further processed and formulated into packaged foods, it is truly an economic bonus to the processor and good nutrition for the consumer.